Finding himself indispensable, Condébecame intolerably greedy and arrogant, and Mazarin finally had him and his friends arrested. He had inherited his desire for the humiliation of the house of Austria in both its branches, his desire to push the French frontier to the Rhine and maintain a counterpoise of German states against Austria, his alliances with the Netherlands and with Sweden, and his four theaters of war -- on the Rhine, in Flanders, in Italy and in Catalonia. He was an avid art collector, founded the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture 1648 , introduced Italian opera at court, and established an important library in Paris. By clever diplomacy he strengthened the crown and negotiated the favorable Peace of the at the end of the war with Spain 1659. He committed war expenditure with little regard for the difficulties of raising revenue, and he was given to economic improvisation that was often unsound, but he doctrinaire views and retained flexibility of mind.
Richelieu was the first bishop in France to in his diocese the reforms decreed by the , and he was also the first theologian to write in French and to establish the conventions of theological exposition. Early life Richelieu was born in on September 9, 1585, he was the fourth of five children and the last of three sons. Earlier, the nation's political structure was largely , with powerful nobles and a wide variety of laws in different regions. In order to force Spain to make a settlement, Mazarin continued the war and formed an alliance with March 23, 1657 , surrendering to the English the fort of , which had been captured from the Spaniards after the June 14, 1658. It was purely and simply his removal, in terms clear and precise. In the same year, however, Richelieu's health was already failing. He was consecrated as a in 1607, he later entered politics, becoming a Secretary of State in 1616.
At that time Northern Italy was a major strategic asset in Europe's balance of powers, being a terrestrial link between the Habsburg's two branches in Germany and Spain. Equally critical for France was Richelieu's foreign policy, which helped restrain Habsburg influence in Europe. . Their goals were to support the Catholic Church, to secure and maintain royal absolutism in France, and to make France the leading power of Europe. He founded the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture 1648 and gave pensions to several men of letters.
In 1641, he participated in the comte de Soissons' failed conspiracy against Richelieu, but was not discovered. In 1638, in gratitude for his work on behalf of France in Rome, pressed the pope to promote Mazarin to cardinal; he received the cardinal's hat 16 December 1641. His library remains in the palace now called the Institut de France that he ordered built to house the , intended for the education of young men from the four provinces that had been acquired by France during his ministry: , , Flanders-Artois, and the region of. Paris, Biblioth èque Nationale, Mazarin: Homme d' état et collectionneur Paris 1961. The die-hard Frondeur Cardinal de retz Paul de Gondi, coadjutor of Paris was arrested December 19 by order of the young king, and on February 3 Mazarin returned to the capital. John Lateran, vice-legate at 1632 , and extraordinary in 1634. This article was transcribed for New Advent by Kenneth M.
The young marquis realized that Richelieu would not permit him to gain political power. Mazarin then had to finish the war against Spain. Mazarin: The Crisis of Absolutism in France. There, he was a vigorous advocate of the Church, arguing that it should be exempt from taxes and that bishops should have more political power. The controversy occurred when the Protestant Swiss canton of invoked a treaty of protection with France against Spanish ambitions in the Valtellina valley. Mazarin attained his aims by both scrupulous and unscrupulous means, inspired love in some and hatred in others, and was controversial in his own time and ever since.
There he distinguished himself more by his love of gambling and his gallant adventures than by study, but made himself a thorough master, not only of the Spanish language and character, but also of that romantic fashion of Spanish love-making which was to help him greatly in later life, when he became the servant of a Spanish queen. It was an action that gained for Richelieu an instant reputation for decision and ruthlessness. As an advocate for Samuel de Champlain and of the retention of , he founded the Compagnie des Cent-Associés and saw the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye return Québec to French rule under Champlain, after the settlement had been captured by the Kirkes in 1629. In 1627, as a captain, he performed several diplomatic missions to states that had an interest in the succession of Mantua, and at this time he first visited France, where he met Richelieu 1630. The King and the duc de Luynes recalled Richelieu, believing that he would be able to reason with the Queen. All these , and particularly the last four, had singularly stormy careers.
Mazarin was a conservative who followed the aims of , his main sponsor. The arrest produced no sensation, indeed was almost unknown, and scarcely interrupted the course of events. It is that immense mass of letters that prove the real greatness of the statesman, and disprove De Retz's portrait, which is carefully arranged to show off his enemy against the might of Richelieu. This war was called the Fronde, a name used to this day in France to denote irresponsible opposition. Lastly, in 1658, he placed , in some sort, under the young king's protection, by forming the League of the Rhine, which was destined to hold the House of in check. Whether they were ever married may be doubted; but that hypothesis is made more possible by M. A lover of the arts, he acquired fine collections, decorated his Parisian mansion today the home of the with works by Italian artists, and brought the Roman opera into favour in France.
Certain letters of Anne of Austria to Mazarin, published by Cousin, and admissions made by Anne to Mme de Brienne and recorded in the Memoirs of Loménie de Brienne, prove that the queen regent was deeply attached to the. As a result, religious toleration for Protestants, which had first been granted by the in 1598, was permitted to continue; however, the Cardinal abolished their political rights and protections. Whereas he was early influenced by the theories of the economist Antoine de Montchrestien, who argued for economic self-sufficiency so as to conserve specie, he was later persuaded that the drain of specie could be compensated for by trade. The Code Michaud of 1629—which regulated industry and trade, companies, public offices, the church, and the army and standardized weights and measures—was promulgated under his authority, although he may not have been its architect. Soon after he returned to his diocese in 1608, Richelieu was heralded as a reformer; he became the first bishop in France to implement the institutional reforms prescribed by the between 1545 and 1563.
His success marked him out for further distinction. Pescina, in the Abruzzi Apennines, July 14, 1602; d. The Frondes were largely due to his own fault. Whether the centrifugal forces in Germany that he promoted—and which the institutionalized—were advantageous to Europe in the long run is questionable, but the political fragmentation of the empire and the military eclipse of Spain made possible the grandeur of France that Richelieu foresaw and his successors realized. For all practical purposes, Austria had lost her preponderance in Europe to France, and the French nobility and parlements gave way to an absolute monarchy. His fearless deportment, his words, so firm, yet dignified, the shades which by one word he had evoked, recalled to her the past in all its intoxication of poetry and romance, youth, beauty, the eclat of love at twenty years of age, the bloody death of Buckingham, the only man whom she had ever really loved, and the heroism of those obscure champions who had saved her from the double hatred of Richelieu and the king. The recovery that came in the 1660s was essentially the work of , whom Mazarin had picked out and recommended to the King.
Mazarin continued policy against the House of. His tenure was marked by the Thirty Years' War that engulfed Europe. Foreign policy In terms of foreign policy and diplomatic relations, Mazarin ended the , which brought the to a conclusion and brought French prestige, and concluded the , which ended the Franco-Spanish conflict. The revolts began with the judges of the parlement or law court in Paris, spread to gain backing among some key nobles and princes, and then found popular support in Paris as well as the provinces. The ascendency that he gained over her, however, did not lead to her submission. Richelieu, however, survived the scheme, and Marie was exiled as a result. Paris, led by its Parliament, had rebelled in 1648.