Development is usually seen as crucially determined by structures of governance; governance is interpreted through and shaped by the goal of development. I will do further studies around these two approaches. Transformation was also recorded in the political as well as the social structure to sustainable levels. As these other societies matured and grew, they would follow the same stages that were followed by the West, and eventually become like modern Western societies. He also believed that this economic growth becomes self-sustaining at this point in development. There have been technological innovations, but only on ad hoc basis.
First the character of the working force changes. Further, there is a change in the attitude of the people who start viewing the world where there are possibilities of future growth. Some countries like Canada and Australia entered this stage even before attaining maturity. In reality, policy makers are unable to clearly identify stages as they merge together. In country Y, it may actually be the other way around, for example the main stay could be agriculture and related produces. To Gylfason 2000 economic growth is a systematic increase in the available market opportunities and choices.
The third requirement implies that the needed capital must be mobilized from domestic resources and steered into the economy, rather than into domestic or state consumption. Rostow lays out five succinct steps towards development and critics have cited that all countries do not develop in such a linear fashion; some skip steps or take different paths. Electric power generations as well as consumption are high due to sudden acceleration of industrial activities. Likewise, Meier argues that stages in the history of economic growth cannot be generalised from the development experience of some European countries as Rostow has done. On the contrary they could be endowed with natural resources like natural gas and oil which would see them attain economic growth and development without necessarily going through the said stages.
Preconditions for Take-off: -Society engages in secular education -establishes banks and currency -emerging entrepreneurial class -concept of manufacturing emerges, with only a few factories developing at first. Increased specialization generates surpluses for trading. It is hard to believe on the available evidence that a phase of agricultural revolution and build-up of overhead social capital in transport must precede the take-off. Per-capita real income rises to level at which a large number of people can afford consumption transcending beyond basic food,shelter and clothing. This stage is referred to as preconditions to takeoff.
This rise in investment rate depends on many sectors of the economy. His theory was outlined in ''The Stages of Economic Growth'' penned in 1960. The new technic of production are applied agriculture as well as industriy. More than 75 percentage of the working population was engaged in agriculture. Not all of the conditions were certain to occur at each stage, however, and the stages and transition periods may occur at varying lengths from country to country, and even from region to region. The most disabling assumption that Rostow is accused of is trying to fit economic progress into a linear system.
In his view, at the beginning, a traditional society witnessed a few stages before attaining the level of the age of mass consumption. This limit arises due to the absence of access to modern science and technology. It is one whose structure is developed within limited production function, based on Pre-Newtonian science and technology and old Pre-Newtonian attitude to the physical world. Nonetheless, his model is useful as a framework for economic history even though it cannot help in developing effective economic policies. You should note that Rostow's theory is subject to criticism. Rostow formulated the best known non-spatial model in 1955 in which five stages of economic development were identified. Is it taking us to communism; or to the affluent suburbs, nicely rounded out with social overhead capital; to destruction; to the moon; or where? The stages include traditional society, preconditions to takeoff, takeoff, drive to maturity, and age of high mass consumption.
People prefer to reside in urban areas. The Swedish take-off was initiated by timber exports, wood pulp and pasteboard products followed by the emergence of railways, hydropower, steel, and animal husbandry and dairy products. Foriegn capital also usually forms a high proportion of total investment. Srinivasan: your explanation with musical notes offers a good and simple picture of the subject. There is a desire to develop an egalitarian society and measures are taken to reach this goal.
His argument that development was uniform is also criticized in the sense that it would be impossible to have uniform development when nations had varying natural resources. Industries like heavy engineering, iron and steel, chemicals, machine tools, agricultural implements, automobiles etc. Actually, passing through those stages will bring such environmental and societal degradation that i do not think it would be easily reversible to a sustainable economy. This assumption holds true in the case of the developed countries. It can therefore follow that using the model as a basis of action for the developing countries can be misleading and never fruitful. For instance land and property are inherited in ritual ceremonies in which almost every member of the family or the immediate community are invited to witness. Consumer durable industries and services sector dominate the market.