In 1926, Sinha joined the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London but his health forced him to winter in India. He received the freedom of the City of London in 1917, took a place on the King's Counsel in 1918 the first Indian to do so , and in 1926 was made a bencher of Lincoln's Inn. Montagu, first as an assistant, and later as a member of the Imperial War Cabinet and Conference along with the Maharaja of Bikanir. The Reserved Subjects are: 1 Land Revenue, 2 Famine Relief, 3 Justice, 4 Police, 5 Pensions, 6 Criminal Tribes, 7 Printing Presses, 8 Irrigation and Waterways, 9 Mines, 10 Factories, 11 Electricity, 12 Labour Welfare and Industrial Disputes, 13 Motor Vehicles, 14 Minor Ports, etc. The Rowlett Act, the Jullianwala Bagh Tragedy, Martial Law and other sad happenings added to the resentment and bitterness of the people.
He then toured India, met with Indian leaders, and together with Viceroy Lord Chelmsford drafted a Report for Indian Constitutional Reform in 1918, popularly called the Montagu-Chelmsford Report. The central and provincial legislatures could make laws on subjects on their respective list of subjects. The act of 1919 was set in motion against the backdrop of increasing Indian anxiety and disappointment at British behavior, and against the backdrop of Mahatma Gandhi's assumption of leadership in the and the departure of Mohammad Ali Jinnah on a separate search for Muslim identity in India. A committee was appointed by the Government of India to propose a scheme of reforms. The Indians felt that the Reforms of 1919 had not given them enough powers and they were dissatisfied with them. He could disallow a question in the legislature.
He then traveled to India and with the viceroy, Lord Chelmsford, issued a report in 1918 that was essentially given life as the Government of India Act of 1919. Indian Legislative Council was replaced by a bicameral legislature having an Upper House Council of State and a Lower House Legislative Assembly. In the midst of this discontent, the resorted to new measures of repression. The new scheme of the Government envisaged a division of subjects into Central List and Provincial List. Two Indians were nominated to the Council of the Secretary of State for Indian Affairs.
Financial Powers of Central Legislature The financial powers of the central legislature were also very much limited. Others included a separate Indian delegation to the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, in the same manner as the self governing dominions Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa. Of the 41 nominated members, 25 members were officials and 16 non-officials. The same old communal electorate system was maintained that hurt the sentiments of Gandhi. He could enact a law, which he considered essential for the safety and tranquility of the empire even if the legislature had refused to pass it.
Such concessions were not acceptable to the Congress and the Muslim League. Print and Stationary, 1928 Moghe, Krishnaji Balvant, The Indian States in Their Relations with the British Paramount Power and the Government of British India: The Butler Committee and the Statutory Commission on Indian Reforms Bombay, 1928 Nehru, Jawaharlal, An Autobiography: With Musings on Recent Events in India London: John Lane, 1936 Parliamentary Debates, 1917-35 Proposals for Indian Constitutional Reform, Cmd. Of the 104 elected members, 52 were to be returned by the general constituencies, 32 by the Communal Constituencies 30 by Muslims and 2 by the Sikhs and 20 by the special constituencies. However, governors retained discretionary powers regarding summoning of legislatures, giving assent to bills and administering certain special regions. Among India-related issues highlighted by the war were the increasingly contentious internecine struggles among British interest groups regarding the administration of the subcontinent and its long-term future. The Commission, appointed by Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin, did not include any Indian delegates. · Bicameral legislature was established in the Centre.
The act of 1919 did not make any substantive change in the legal relationship between the governments at Whitehall and Delhi, and only moderately reshaped the executive council of the central government in India, expanding it to include three Indian representatives. But these advances did not satisfy Indian nationalists, who were inflamed by the continuation of wartime laws that abridged civil freedoms, and acts of peaceful and violent resistance continued. The bicameral system of legislature was introduced at the Centre but there was not appreciable increase in the powers of the legislature. The Governor could deal with each minister individually. The viceroy, however, retained control of the central government, and the role of the mostly elected bicameral legislature remained advisory. He had the power to veto or reserve for the consideration of crown any Bill passed by the Indian legislature.
In March 1919, it passed the Rowlatt Act even though every single Indian member of the Central Legislative Council opposed it. The reserved subjects, on the other hand, were to be administered by the governor and his council without being responsible to the legislative Council. In 1930, the Commission published its two-volume report, also known as the Simon Report. However, several key elements remained in British hands—irrigation, land revenues, military matters, currency, police, justice, and press controls. The exigencies of war and the demands by different Indian groups magnified the need for reform on the constitutional front.
Drawbacks: The reforms had many drawbacks: i Franchise was very limited. Cosgrave President of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State , Desmond FitzGerald Minister for External Affairs of the Provisional Government of the Irish Free State , Nicolaas Christiaan Havenga South Africa , James Berry Munik Hertzog Prime Minister of South Africa , Mackenzie King Prime Minister of Canada , W. Transferred areas included agriculture, public works, education, and local self-government. The frustration and discontent with the political situation grew unabated into the first years of , and the imperatives for retaining Indian support in a time of crisis—conceding some element of expanded Indian participation in government—led to Edwin S. World War I also aroused both the congress and the league to demand significant constitutional reforms from Britain. Leopold Amery Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs , Stanley Baldwin Prime Minister , Arthur Balfour Lord President of the Council , Lord Birkenhead Secretary of State , Stanley Bruce Prime Minister of Australia , Maharaja of Burdwan India Austen Chamberlain Foreign Secretary , Winston Churchill Chancellor of the Exchequer , Gordon Coates Prime Minister of New Zealand , W. Governor got the power to override ministers and executive council.