In the present study, males who had participated in all of interviews i. A comprehensive test of general strain theory: Key strains, situational- and trait-based negative emotions, conditioning factors, and delinquency. A test of general strain theory. The readers by and are intended for graduate students and professionals. In this case strain theory would serve as an important theory to unveil the causes of crime in the society. The conditional effects of stress on delinquency and drug use: A strain theory assessment of sex differences. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39 4 , 380—392.
Status variation in stress exposure: Implications for the interpretation of research on race, socioeconomic status, and gender. The legacy of anomie theory. And second, suggested that adolescents have less social support than adults, or at least are less likely to share their problems and ask for support from parents and other loved ones. Robert Agnew's general strain theory is considered to be a solid theory, has accumulated a significant amount of empirical evidence, and has also expanded its primary scope by offering explanations of phenomena outside of criminal behavior. A detailed summary of Time 4 and 5 data collection has also been published. The strain theory of suicide is based on the theoretical frameworks established by previous sociologists, e.
Sensation seeking: Beyond the optimal level of arousal. Purging behavior in a sample of college females: A research note on general strain theory and female deviance. Explaining Gender Differences in Crime Males are much more likely than females to engage in crime and delinquency, with the gender difference in offending being greatest for serious offenses. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain. For example, being bullied by peers on a frequent basis is a type of strain that is expected to have a relatively strong relationship to delinquency. It may also serve to reduce criminal behavior because a noxious stimuli was removed from one's environment, however. This finding is consistent with the prior research of , who found that respondents who were high in negative emotionality exhibited a stronger association between strain exposure and delinquency.
Adults with few or no criminal peers would be more likely to desist from crime than their counterparts. Evidence indicates that males are more likely than females to experience certain strains conducive to crime, such as violent victimization, and that this difference partly explains gender differences in offending e. In particular, they often lack coping resources that are available to those in wealthier communities, such as money, power, and conventional social support. The experience of chronic or repeated strain, in particular, may weaken relationships with conventional others and therefore result in low social control. Why do adolescents use drugs? Stresses of Daily Life Jack is a seemingly regular 18-year-old. Agnew recognized that strain theory originally put forward by Robert King Merton was limited in terms of fully conceptualizing the range of possible sources of strain in society, especially among youth. Similar findings are reported by Jang and Song and Ousey, Wilcox, and Schreck.
Code of the street: Decency, violence, and the moral life of the inner city. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency Volume:38 Issue:4 Dated:November 2001 Pages:319 to 361. Youth violence and juvenile justice, 12 1 , 58—76. Schools, strain and offending: Testing a school contextual version of General Strain Theory. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 51, 9—24. There is some evidence that negative emotions other than anger may help to account for the relationship between strain and offending, at least for certain deviant outcomes e. The strain theory of suicide forms a challenge to the psychiatric model popular among the suicidologists in the world.
Unexpectedly, they observe that the females in their sample exhibit higher levels of anger and depression. Agnew supports this assumption but he also believes dealing with youth there are other factors that incite. An empirical framework for studying desistance as a process. They examine various individual strains and conclude that some strains affect males and females differently see also Hay, ; Jang,. Further, the victim of bullying may believe that striking back at the source of strain will help to end or alleviate the strain. These include strains that are high in magnitude severe, frequent, of long duration, or involving matters of high importance to the individual , are seen as unjust and associated with low social control, and they can be readily resolved through crime. As a result of their difficult temperament, aggressive individuals have difficulty maintaining stable relationships and employment.
A latent variable analysis of strain theory. It includes, for example, stressors that could be experienced by both lower-class and middle-class individuals. In addition to the generation of anger, strain is likely to have other consequences of a criminogenic nature. The future of anomie theory. In response to this shortcoming, the present study examined whether changes in strain and personal and social resources can explain changes in self-reported criminal offending across time. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 38, 319—361.
Merton believed that socially accepted goals put pressure on people to conform. For example, females are more likely than males to react to academic problems with anger and depression. British Journal of Medical Psychology. While studying the crime theory, it would be important to highlight such social parameters that influence behavior outcomes in people. Hoffmann examined delinquent behavior across census tracks in the United States and found limited empirical support for the role of strain. This type of strain is likely to be experienced as highly noxious and is likely to generate anger and desires for revenge. Journal of Criminal Justice, 43 6 , 419—430.
There could be four types of strain that precede a suicide, and each can be derived from specific sources. Theoretical Criminology, 14 2 , 131—153. Assymetrical causation and criminal desistance. For instance, different types of strain may have distinct emotional consequences, leading to distinct behavior outcomes Ganem,. Males and females appear to react differently to strain or to the emotional consequences of strain. One of these other theories is the functional theory that explains how parts of the society contribute in expected and unexpected ways to the social order, disorder, or instability.
Goode in 1960, states that social institutions are supported and operated by role relationships. This type of access increases the likelihood that such youth will specialize in money-oriented crimes as opposed to drug use or violence. Piquero and Sealock analyze data from a small sample of justice-involved youth and find that males and females generally experience the same amount of overall strain. Certain strains that fall into this category—such as racial discrimination—have been neglected by other theories. For example, individuals experiencing chronic unemployment may engage in theft or drug selling to obtain money, seek revenge against the person who fired them, or take illicit drugs in an effort to feel better. Edited volume begins with an introduction by Robert Merton, who reviews and extends his classic strain theory, followed by a range of articles that review, apply, test, and extend strain theory. Adults are increasingly able to exercise more control and autonomy over their work and where they live, they have a smaller, more intimate circle of friends, gravitate towards one romantic partner, and experience less turnover in significant others, such as co-workers, romantic partners, and friends , p.