Congress created a court system with the Judiciary Act of 1789. Federalists believed the government was sovereign because it had been established by the people, so radical protest actions, which were permissible during the American Revolution, were no longer legitimate. I host a podcast called Shots of History, where I talk about the intersection of history and alcohol. In addition to the whiskey tax, westerners had a number of other grievances with the national government. Southern states particularly opposed the plan, since they had already paid off nearly all of their debts while the northern states lagged behind. But generally speaking the federalists were in favor of a more centralized government and more federally funded programs, while Republicans looked for more local, and state lead initiatives, so in that sense there are some similarities. Federalists viewed these excesses with growing alarm, fearing that the radicalism of the French Revolution might infect the minds of citizens at home.
Washington and Hamilton viewed resistance to federal laws in Pennsylvania as particularly embarrassing, since the national capital was then located in the same state. This came to the attention of Brigadier John Ashley, who mustered a force of some 80 men and caught up with the rebels in nearby late in the day for the bloodiest encounter of the rebellion: 30 rebels were wounded one mortally , at least one government soldier was killed, and many were wounded. The government commissioners told the committee that it must unanimously agree to renounce violence and submit to U. The angry distillers were overwhelmed and quickly dispersed, and only three lives were lost in this battle. In 's alternate history novel 1980 , convinces the militia not to put down the rebellion, but instead to march on the nation's capital, execute George Washington for treason, and replace the Constitution with a revised Articles of Confederation. On July 26, a group headed by Bradford robbed the U. The bills also authorized state payments to reimburse Lincoln and the merchants who had funded the army, and authorized the recruitment of additional militia.
Places that become really interesting during the Civil War and the sectional crisis. In 1791, Congress had authorized a tax of 7. Adams proposed a new legal distinction that rebellion in a republic should be punished by execution. Congress immediately set out to establish a judicial branch, develop the executive branch, set a legislative agenda, and meet the popular demand for a bill of rights. He stopped it by sending federal troops into western pennsylvania to end the protest once and for all. Partisan American newspapers tried to sway public opinion, while the skillful writing of Hamilton, who published a number of essays on the subject, explained the benefits of commerce with Great Britain. The French king was executed in January 1793, and the next two years became known as the Terror, a period of extreme violence against perceived enemies of the revolutionary government.
There is still debate among scholars concerning the rebellion's influence on the Constitution and its ratification. The judges first postponed hearings and then adjourned on the 28th without hearing any cases. James Bowdoin and the Patriot Philosophers. Finding several letters that condemned the rebels, Bradford and his band called for a military assembly to meet at , about 8 mi 13 km east of Pittsburgh. Until these issues were addressed, westerners felt the government was ignoring their security and economic welfare. President George Washington, however, remained safely neutral in the dispute between his two staff members.
Historian Robert Feer notes that several prominent figures had hoped that the convention would fail, requiring a larger-scale convention, and French diplomat thought that the convention was intentionally broken off early to achieve this end. The whiskey tax was repealed after 's Republican Party, which opposed the Federalist Party of Hamilton and Washington, came to power in 1801. An incident occurred on September 6, 1791, when Robert Johnson, one of the first excise tax collectors for Washington and Allegheny counties, was walking near Pigeon Creek in Washington County. Genêt even threatened to overthrow Washington himself. The smaller party is referred to as the minority party.
It then passed the Senate and became law in March, 1791. As a result of this and other petitions, the excise law was modified in May 1792. In 1791 Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton proposed, as a part of his financial plan for the United States, a series of excise taxes to raise revenue for the new federal government. Those who failed to heed the warnings might have their barns burned or their stills destroyed. The other will be Thomas Jefferson, representing the Republicans, and in the middle we have George Washington. Resistance Many residents of the western frontier petitioned against passage of the whiskey excise.
Sarah as you mentioned Hamilton really did want this to be the response. On the other hand, supporters of the tax argued that it helped stabilize the economy and its cost could easily be passed on to the consumer, not the farmer-distiller. The settlers, mainly Scotch-Irish, for whom whiskey was an important economic commodity, resented the tax as discriminatory and detrimental to their li … berty and economic welfare. Adding the whiskey excise to these existing grievances only increased tensions on the frontier. The same day that Lincoln arrived at Petersham, the state legislature passed bills authorizing a state of martial law and giving the governor broad powers to act against the rebels. So it could be something like this episode, where we talk about the Whiskey Rebellion, or it could be something a little bit more abstract.
Daniel Shays had participated in the Northampton action and began to take a more active role in the uprising in November, though he firmly denied that he was one of its leaders. The attackers modeled their actions on the protests of the. Farmers living west of the Appalachian Mountains distilled their excess grain into whiskey, which was easier and more profitable to transport over the mountains than the more cumbersome grain. I think, kind of as you both suggested, kind of upping the ante between rural and urban divide. The suppression of the Whiskey Rebellion strengthened the power and legitimacy of the federal government to enforce law. Rum production used the molasses by-product of the Caribbean sugar plantations so it was cheap and readily available in the 18th century. Sarah: Right like in Main you can buy liquor at the grocery store.
Throughout 1792 and 1793, local resistance to the tax oftentimes led to violence. At the urging of William Findley, Congress modified this law on June 5, 1794, allowing excise trials to be held in local state courts. Places where military conflicts occurred are highlighted in red; the others are locations of courthouses that were shut down. At the same time, civilian and military demand for alcohol sored. The emerging American political parties took opposite sides on the issue. Our two party system could resume functioning, healing American politics.
As Marissa mentioned, they would take some of their crop and turn it into whiskey. In 1796 the Supreme Court first asserted its power to determine the constitutionality of congressional statutes. In 1796, Washington retired from office, deciding not to run for a third term. So far as we have already formed engagements, let them be fulfilled with perfect good faith. One moderate who did attend—to his later regret—was , a future secretary of the treasury. Anti-federalists also argued that the Constitution did not explicitly give the federal government the power to grant such charters. However, only Neville, his wife, and granddaughter were in the house.